Zoonoses

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Zoonoses

Zoonoses is any disease or infection that is naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans. The term ‘Zoonosen‘ was first used by Rudolf Virchow as s synonym for “infection by contagious animal poisons” whereas Galli-Valerio published a manual with the title of Zoonosi: malattie trasmissibili dagli animali all’uomo (Zoonoses: diseases communicable from animal to man).

According to some other researchers, Zoonosis should cover all human problems derived from animals, including bites, physical and physiological trauma. and even environmental pollution.

Zoonotic pathogens may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic or may involve unconventional agents and can spread to human through direct contact or food, water or the environment. Zoonotic diseases can survive and multiply without the presence of man. In rabies, brucellosis, trichinellosis, Man is the dead-end host and therefore not even useful for the perpetuation of the pathogenic agent. The only known exception to this rule are Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, for which man is the unique definitive host.

Zoonotic Spread

Who is at risk?

Markets selling the meat or by-products of wild animals, Agriculture workers in the field using a high amount of antibiotics, people living in proximity to wildlife areas with a high number of wild animals are at risk of diseases. Urbanization and Destruction of natural habitat increase the contact between human and wild animals causing a surge in Zoonoses.

Prevention and Control

Almost all the infections classified as zoonoses can only exist where and when animals are present. Veterinary action is necessary for the control of zoonoses. Prevention methods differ from pathogen to pathogen. Standards for clean drinking water and waste removal, safe and appropriate guidelines for foodborne zoonotic diseases as well as protection of natural habitats and environment will play a crucial role in the prevention of zoonotic diseases.

Education Campaigns to promote awareness about zoonoses, promote handwashing after contact with animals and other behavioral adjustments can reduce community spread of zoonotic diseases when they occur. Antimicrobial resistance is a complicating factor in the control and prevention.

To mark the importance of Zoonosis, 6th July is celebrated as World Zoonoses Day.

“The accelerating pace of zoonotic transmission of novel viruses into humans is attributable to anthropogenic epidemiologic factors. Only behavior modification or medical management of this future health burden will minimize the risks of future zoonoses for human populations.”

The Geek Veterinarian

First Aid in Small Animals

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Longhair dachshund puppy wearing a band aid.

Just like kids, Pets of any age get abrasions, cuts, injuries, get involved in fights and sometimes bite each other. As a Parent you give first aid to your child when injured, so you can give first aid to your injured pet, when in need.

DO NOT PANIC‘ – This is the first and most crucial thing you must do while giving first aid is not to panic. Panicking will make injured pet loss his calm and it’ll not be easy for you to administer right medicine or make a fuss of the injury.

First Aid Kit – Always have your FA kit ready. It must include – Antiseptics, Cotton, Tweezers, Bandages, Wound Dressing, Wound Wash, Gloves, Blunt edge scissors, Self-adhesive tape.

Check For Vitals – Heart Rate, Pulse Rate, Temperature, Respiratory Rate, Level of consciousness and pain, capillary refills and mucous membrane colour.

Bleeding Wound and Blood in Eye

Check your pet’s mouth and look for any object such as ball or any thing which might cause choke. Remove the object using a tweezers or pliers. If the animal is unconscious, sweep the fingers inside the throat and look for any lodged object and remove it.

Identify the Injuries – Bites, wounds, burns, broken bones, seizures, poison and toxins, abrasions, hypothermia. Identifying the injury is very necessary to apply first aid.

Chlorhexidine, Betadine, Isopropyl Alcohol are needed to treat wounds, cuts, and abrasion.

In case of Burn first aid requires Saline Solution. Saline Soln can be prepared by using 4 cup of water add 2 teaspoons of salt and boil it, cool it down and apply on the burn wound.

Ophthalmic (Eye) Injury – Use Contact lens solution, Boric Acid. If an irritating chemical or product accidentally gets into eyes, wash or use sponge and damp with saline solution.

Broken Bones – Very Painful condition, use muzzle and then stabilise the bone using splinters. Look for pale gum which indicates blood loss or shock. Bandages can be used to cover wounds, left open can cause severe infection.

Heatstroke – Look the common signs of Heatstroke, Excessive panting, trouble breathing and collapse. Move the pet to the shade or indoors. Turn on the fan, put water towel on start cooling, wet the paws, feet and fur slowly. If conscious give them cool water to drink.

In case of eye injury, permanent blindness may occur, broken bones make cause severe infection and bone deformities.

Perform CPR if needed. Perform First Aid with caution and hygiene.

As a Pet parent it is your responsibility to learn first aid and CPR. You can be a lifesaver to your pet in case of emergencies.

After giving First Aid Contact your Vet and rush to the Vet Clinic or Hospital for further treatment. Any delay in treatment may cost you the life of your pet.

Take some time to learn First Aid and CPR, it saves life and it works.

The Geek Veterinarian

Pain Management

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Pain Management

Just like humans, animalS feel pain when sick or injured, although recognizing pain in animals can be difficult because it doesn’t act same as humans do when they are in pain.

Types of Pain 

Animal in pain exhibits physical and behavioural signs. The most common pain can be categorized as acute, chronic, cancer and neuropathic.

Physical Signs
Change in heart rate, breathing pattern, movement or posture Slowed reflexes
Behavioral Signs
Reduced appetite, Reluctance to move or difficulty getting comfortable, Unusual restlessness or anxiety, Withdrawn behavior Mood or personality changes, Licking, biting, or rubbing the site of pain, Irritability

Any one or all of these complications may be present and may risk the recovery of your pet. Sometimes it means your pet doesn’t recover; sometimes it means prolonged, intensive, treatment or ineffective. Painful illness in pet’s life may make future illness or injuries more difficult to treat. Pet may have a bad memory visiting a vet.

Treatment

Reducing your pet’s stress and providing all the necessary care and support will maximise the benefit of the pain relieving treatment regimen. Housing Conditions, Physical restraining, diet, interaction with other animals, providing multimodal analgesia, pre-emptive analgesia and balanced anesthesia allow us to not only use smaller, safer drugs doses, but it appears to be the most effective while undergoing the surgery which will cause severe pain on cut-opening the body. Physiotherapy and Acupuncture are also preferred for pain management.

Drugs are used to relieve pain such as Opioids, Alpha 2 Agonists, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Corticosteroids, Lidocaine for local pain relief.

The veterinary profession is sufficiently advanced enough to recognize and successfully manage pain in patients, using various techniques, medication and experience that can be customized to the species and the medical conditions. A treatment plan must be made according to the history of the patient and followed accordingly.

All creatures are deserving of a life free from fear and pain

THE GEEK VETERINARIAN

Euthanasia – the good death

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Euthanization of Dog

Euthanasia is an act of inducing humane death in an animal with minimal pain and distress. It is the responsibility of the veterinarian administering an euthanasia to ensure the animal is dealt with highest degree of respect, with an emphasis on making entire procedure as painless and distress free for animal as possible. Euthanasia should result in rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac or respiratory arrest and ultimately loss of brain function.  Type of Euthanasia Active Euthanasia refers to the physician’s deliberate act, usually to administration of lethal drugs, to end  an incurable or terminally ill patient’s life, while passive euthanasia refers to withholding or withdrawing treatment which is necessary for maintaining life. Sub-branches of active euthanasia, in relation to giving the consent are as follows

  1. Voluntary- at patient’s request
  2. Non-Voluntary -without the consent of patient
  3. Involuntary- patient is not in the position to give the consent 

Prohibited Methods of Inducing Euthanasia 

  • Electrocution
  • Hanging & Stunning 
  • Hyperthermia
  • Drowning
  • Formalin Injection
  • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents injections
  • Burning
  • Rapid Freezing
  • Chloroform 
  • Decompression
  • Air Embolism 
  • Exsanguination
  • Strychnine injection

Procedure  The methods and drugs to euthanize animals are with relevance to the availability of cost effective drugs in the field conditions in India. Availability of skilled and semi skilled manpower, the standards have been drawn for euthanasia of animals of different species. In view of the poor infrastructure and non availability of gaseous agents all over India in general, these agents have not been considered.
Pre-euthanasia drugs – Tranquilizers/Sedatives/ImmobilizersMedication with these drugs is required to facilitate humane handling of animals prior to euthanasia to reduce stress in handling of animals.      Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) recommends the following procedure for euthanising animals – 

  1. Sedate large animals using xylazine and in small animals such as dogs use combination of ketamine and xylazine. 
  2. Inject an overdose of thiopentone intravenously (90 mg/kg BW) over a period of 10 seconds. In most cases the heart will stop.
  3. If heartbeat persists, inject intravenously one of the following drugs immediately after the animal becomes unconscious (these 3 solutions must not be administered to a conscious animal) :-    
  •  Saturated Magnesium sulphate solution
  • 10% potassium chloride or iodine solution
  • Chlorhexidine-cetrimide solutio
Euthanizing Drugs 

  4. It make take few seconds to minutes for the heartbeat to cease. The veterinarian should check the heartbeat using a stethoscope and confirm the death. The vet shouldn’t leave the place until he/she is certain that the animal is dead.  After confirming the death, the carcass must be disposed carefully, because euthanizing drugs might harm the decomposers.   

 “Like all vets I hated doing this painless though it was,but to me there has always been an comfort in the knowledge that the last thing these helpless animals knew was the sound of a friendly voice and the touch of a gentle hand.”                                               

  THE GEEK VETERINARIAN

Rabies

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Dog Bite


Have you ever wondered about the origin of Rabies. What is Rabies? How it occurs? What is Rabies Virus and what symptoms, signs an animal will exhibit. In this blog we will cover all the major aspect regarding Rabies.
Rabies is a viral zoonotic neuroinvasive disease which causes inflammation of brain and ultimately death. Lyssa Virus or more commonly known as Rabies Virus, which belongs to the family of Rhabdoviridae, which includes 3 genera of animal viruses, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, and Vesiculovirus and the genus Lyssavirus includes Rabies virus, with a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA Genome with a distinct “bullet-shape“. Rabies Virus occurs in animals such as humans, dog, cattle, bats, although any mammal. 
How can you tell if any animal have rabies? You can’t tell exactly if any animal have rabies by looking at it- the only way to know for sure if an animal has rabies is to perform lab testing of the following samples saliva, serum, spinal fluid. However animals with rabies may act strangely. Some may show aggression and try to bite while others may be lethargic, excess drooling along with foaming at mouth or animal having trouble moving or paralysis. Test such as ELISA, RT-PCR, Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Test are performed for diagnostic purpose antemortem and brain tissue for post-mortem, PM finding includes Negri Bodies in the tissue.Rabies Virus is transmitted through direct contact with the saliva of infected animal. People usually get rabies from the bite for a rabid animal, yet it is possible for a person to get rabies from non-bite exposure, which includes scratches, abrasions, or open wounds that have been exposed to the saliva of the rabid animal. 
Stages of Rabies   Three stages of rabies are recognized which are Prodromal, Excitative and the last stage is Dumb or Paralytic stage. 

Images of brain showing (left) thin and discoloured cortical ribbon(arrows) and small hippocampus of a Rabid Human and (Right) normal cortex

Treatment First step towards a great successful treatment is to wash the wound where animal had bite with Povidone-iodine or  alcohol to reduce the virus particle at the site of bite.  Vaccination can prevent the disease if given within 10 days. Vaccine is 100% effective if given early, and still has a chance of success if delivery is delayed. Intra-dermal Vaccination route is used. Vaccination after exposure, PEP(Post-exposure prophylaxis) is highly successful in preventing the disease. In unvaccinated humans, rabies is almost always fatal after neurological symptoms have been developed.   

28th September is World Rabies Day, which promotes the information, prevention, and elimination of disease.  

“Don’t leave this issue unheard. Do your part to educate the world about it. End Rabies ”                                  

  THE GEEK VETERINARIAN 

Fundamentals of Surgical Oncology in Small Animals

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Surgical Procedure

Cancer is one of the major cause of death in both humans and in animals being small, large or wild animal, surgical removal of tumors is one of the most common procedure carried out by the veterinarians. This blog covers tumor evaluation, biopsy, grading and staging, along with surgical procedure. 

In Veterinary Medicine, Surgery is considered the most important component of treating canine and feline suffering from solid tumors, because in many cases surgical procedure is the best option which offers the best chance of improving patient’s quality life. 

The basic principle of Surgical Oncology includes the following – 

  • Characteristic of Tumor being treated
  • Available Surgical Options 
  • Potential needs for adjunctive treatments along with the primary treatment such as Chemotherapy or Radiation therapy.

Therapeutic treatment is also provided to improve the patient’s quality of life.
Patient Evaluation Before considering surgical option you should have a complete patient medical history. On the basis of history a suitable surgical plan must be designed on the basis of Physical Examination, Diagnostic Imaging, Clinical Cyto-Pathology and Histopathology. A plan must be implemented afterward with a complete analysis of lab-reports. Tumor Identification  Physical Examination plays an important role in identification of neoplasia, either via palpitation or paraneoplastic syndromes, which maybe found on a routine blood and urine analysis. It allows detection of possible tumor presence and identification of underlying conditions that may influence the treatment plan.After tumor is identified, record it’s location, size, gross appearance and palpate lymph nodes. Lymph Biopsy is also recommended in some cases, normal lymph node palpitation doesn’t guarantee lack of metastasis.     
Tumor Evaluation is done by Histopathologic Analysis of tissue is obtained during Biopsy, which allows the definitive diagnosis of :- 

  • Tumor Type (Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Neoplasia)
  • Tumor Grade
  • Biological behavior (Malignant or Benign)
  • Aggressiveness    
Pineal Tumor Biopsy

There are 4 types of tumor biopsy techniques: 

  1. Needle-core Biopsy– it mainly includes 2 techniques, Tru-cut needle-core for Soft tissues and Jamshidi needle-core for Ossified tissues. 
  2. Fine-needle Aspiration (FNA)- a cost effective, minimum invasive procedure useful for differentiation of neo and non-neoplastic diseases.  
  3. Incisional Biopsy– is utilized when less invasive techniques fail to yield a diagnosis especially for soft, friable, necrotic, inflamed tumors. 
  4. Excisional Biopsy– allows the identified tumor to be removed in its entirety, with or without surgical margins.  It is a common approach for mass removal in veterinary medicine yet controversial. 

Biopsy Procedure must be carefully planned to prevent the spread of necrotic cells to unaffected tissue and allow to remove of biopsy tracks or scars during excision of the tumor. Coagulation Testing should be carried out when obtaining the biopsy of vascular organs such as liver, spleen. Biopsy Procedure is mainly considered when the  

  • Surgical Plan will be affected by tumor characteristics 
  •  Owner’s willingness to treat may be altered based on diagnosis.

Tumor Grading & StagingGrading is the histopathologic assessment of the tumor’s aggressiveness, mitotic index, degree of differentiation and invasiveness to nearby tissues. Staging establishes to what extent the tumor has invaded local, regional or systemic tissue. It is done when the suspected tumor is malignant.

Surgical Intervention & Planning There are 4 levels of surgical aggressiveness, or surgical dose, to classify the extent of surgical resection. The most common mistake is the use of surgical dose, that is too low, which results from concerns about the ability to close the resultant defects. However, if the diagnosis of malignancy has been confirmed, it’s maybe better to manage an open wound than leave tumor cells behind. Surgical Planning – careful surgical planning should be done, as the first surgery is often the surgeon’s best chance for achieving a positive outcome. Multiple factors should be considered when determining aggressiveness of surgery- tumor type, short and long term prognosis, concurrent diseases, owners wish,  availability of adjunctive treatment.  Surgical Margins width must be known and careful tumor handling is required to prevent exfoliation of cells and local recurrence. Avoid direct handling of the tumor and change the surgical gloves and instruments between tumor excision and closure. 

Surgical Closure  Is the final step of surgical intervention, which can be completed by two closure types – Primary closure the skin is closed at the end of the surgery, whereas in Secondary Closure the wound is left open at the end of the surgery and heals by granulation and contraction. 
Tissue Analysis and Dirty Margins Resected tissue should be prepared for analysis to determine the extent of tumor resection. Despite Biopsy, following resection occasionally reveals that tumor was inadequately resected. Dirty Margins provide information about where the neoplasm extends beyond the surgical margins (normal tissue).

     “Right now, after having had back surgery, I am finally back to running again”
                                    

  THE GEEK VETERINARIAN

Veterinary Ethics

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Veterinary Ethics

Veterinary Ethics is the application of ethical theories, principles, and rules by professionals and paraprofessionals in resolving ethical dilemmas in the practice of Veterinary Care. In order to resolve ethical dilemmas, a minimum understanding of and exposure to moral theories is essential. Branches of Veterinary ethics are described with a greater focus on normative ethics or theories discussed. The fundamental problem of veterinary ethics relating toveterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR) and complications arising from the dualist nature of veterinary medicine pitting professionalism against commercial interests are explored. 

Having laid the theoretical basis, the rest of the entry of examines various issues with ethical dimensions, including euthanasia, disease control by mass slaughter, genetic manipulation, ethno-veterinary medicine, wildlife capture, veterinary public health and One Health Ethical Issues. The enforcement of fair competition practices is forcing a reexamination of relationship between vets, leading to change in professional ethics.

For practical purpose, Veterinary Ethics have been divided into four branches which are

  1. Descriptive veterinary ethics
  2. Official veterinary ethics
  3. Administrative veterinary ethics
  4. Normative veterinary ethics

Why and How Ethics are taught? According to the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons states that the new graduates should be able to “understand the ethical and legal responsibility of vets in relation to patients, clients, society and environment”  and having the underpinning knowledge of “the ethical framework within which veterinary surgeons should work, including important ethical theories that inform decision making in professional and animal welfare related ethics.
Ethical Reasoning is not simply learned by a process of a repeated exposure to ethical issues. It remains unknown to what extent the teaching of ethics to vet students enables them to minimize or avoid moral stress. There is no accepted gold standard for veterinary ethics education and curricula vary, with ethics taught as a standalone subject in some programs and integrated into other subjects in other program.  Key ethics textbook, as well as regular column such as In Practice’s Everyday Ethics column and the ethical question of the month in Canadian Veterinary Journal, tend to apply ethical framework and approaches to case-based scenarios and are useful ethics training tools for veterinary students and veterinarians alike.

Big Money

Rollin’s Model to examine the perception of the society on veterinary practice, the two metaphors are the veterinarians as ‘Pediatricians’ or as ‘Garage Mechanic’. The Pediatrician Model is centered on a child patient’s interest, whereas the Garage Mechanic Model, the relationship are centered on the owner’s willingness and ability to pay. It’s his view that the pendulum is more on the mechanic model when one is dealing with animal health care. This perspective of service delivery is especially important in mechanic model when delivery in veterinary services is considered as a commercial activity. The relationship between the vet and the client can then be the cast in the language of principal-agent theory in which the problems of moral hazard and adverse selection are abound. 

 Working In Wildlife Ecosystem  The role of wildlife as reservoir of disease-causing agent in humans and domestic animals has increased the involvement of veterinarians in activities such as game capture for various reasons including translocation, attaching tracking devices and sample collection for disease surveillance in the wild. This entails the tranquilization of wild animals using aerial or land vehicles to track and darting to administer powerful chemicals for safer handling and manipulation. In doing this, sometimes unintended events occur such as animals being drowned having sought sanctuary in water bodies, predators catching prey and injuries while fleeing the administration of drugs. While these activities are important for improvement of quality of life for humans and animals in the long run, ethical dilemmas exists in the short run as to whether these actions are morally justified given the danger it posed to animals.
Ethical and moral issues arises commonly in all the spheres of veterinary practice. Ethics education during veterinary training can play a crucial role and help to improve ethical sensitivity and equip veterinarians with framework and approach that supports ethical-decision making. Advocating for Animal welfare may not be comfortable and may, at times requires courage but is necessary to advance veterinary medical profession and to improve human regards for animals as sentiments being. Applied ethics will advance with the course of time and research. 
            

“Education and Ethics need to walk hand in hand”
                                            

  THE GEEK VETERINARIAN 

PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS, 1960

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Animal Abuse

In a developing countries like India, China etc., animal abuse is very usual. For example, animals are used as a prop in circus ,even some people who owns a pet for entertainment and even in dairy farming  animals are mistreated for increased milk yield. Every animal deserves to be treated right with value. To ensure the animal rights and in order to stop animal cruelty and to thrive these animals, Govt. of India passed Prevention of Cruelty Act, 1960.


                                    PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS, 1960

It defines the animals and different forms of animals (Domestic, Captive, Performing Animals) and enshrines the provision relating to the establishment of Animal Welfare Board, its functioning, power and regulatory under bodies. It provides certain guidelines relating to experimentation for scientific purpose along with it also discuss different forms of cruelty, exceptions and killing and suffering of the animal.  In case of suffering and killing of a animal, it commits to relive it from the discomfort and put fine or imprisons the culprit.Cruelty in General –  According of Section 11 of this Act, the following acts by any person are to be considered as cruelty :- 

  • Beating, Kicking, Runs over, Drives over, Tortures or otherwise treats any animal by unnecessary pain or suffering or any employment for such animals.
  • employs animal in work or labor which due to any disease, infirmity, wound or any other cause
  • Willful and unreasonable administration of any injurious drug or substance to any domestic or captive animal.
  • Cages and confines any animal or other receptacle having insufficient growth in length and breadth permitting the animal a reasonable opportunity to move around
  • keeping any animal chained or tethered by means of an unreasonable short or long chain for unreasonable time period
  • being the owner of any captive animal fails to supply it with adequate food, drink or shelter
  • Abandoning any animal in such situations causing it to suffer pain by reason of starvation or thirst, without any reason.
  • Offering for sale or possessing any animal which is suffering pain, distress due to mutilation, starvation, thirst, over crowding or other ill-treatment
  • For business purpose – organizes, keeps, management of any place for animal fighting or purporting to bait any animal or permits or offer place to be used or receives money for the admission of any other person to any place kept or used for any such purpose; or
  • promotes or participates in any shooting match or competition where captive animals are released for the purpose of such an event.

They shall be punished, in case of a first offense, with a fine extending up to 50 INR, and in case of second or subsequent offence committed within 3 years of previous offence, with a fine of 100 INR, or imprisonment for a term which can be extend to 3 months or more.  
However the following acts are excluded from the ambit of cruelty: –

  • the training of animals for bonafide military or police purpose or exhibition of any animals so trained 
  • Any animal kept in zoological garden or by any society or association which for its principal object the exhibition of animals for educational or scientific purpose. 
  • Dehorning/Castration/Branding/Nose-roping of any animal if done in a prescribed method.
Captive Animals

Captive Animal
Section 12 
– Penalty for Practicing Phooka or Doom Dev – If any person practice phooka on any cow or milch animal to improve lactation which is injurious to the health of animal or permits such operations being performed upon such animal in his possession or under his control, he shall be punishable with a fine which may extend to 1000 INR or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to a term of 2 years or with both, and the animal on which the operation was performed shall be forfeited to the Government. It is Cognizable Offence.

Section 13 – Killing of Suffering Animal – This provision relating to the killing of an animal so as to relieve it from any further suffering. This section is implemented by the order of Court. when the court decides it is cruel to keep the animal alive to direct that the animal be destroyed and to assign the animals to any suitable person for that purpose, and the person to whom such animal is so assigned shall as soon as possible, destroy such animal or cause such animal to be destroyed in his presence without unnecessary suffering.No order shall be made under this section except upon the evidence of a veterinary officer in charge of the area.

Experimentation of Animals – Chapter – IV – According to this Act, nothing shall affect the experimentation (including operation) on the animal for the purpose of Advancement through the new discovery of physiological knowledge, knowledge useful for decreasing the mortality rate, combating disease, suffering alleviation.  Experimentation is guarded under Section 14 of the Act.  Committee for controlling and supervising experiments on animal is constituted under the Section 15 of this Act. Committee’s fund shall include governments grants provided to it time and again along with the following made to the by any person – 

  • Contribution
  • Donation
  • Subscription
  • Gifts
Performing Animals

Using Animals for Performance 

Performing Animal
Exhibition and Training – Section 21 – 
It refers to exhibit at any entertainment to which public makes admission through purchasing of tickets and training means to train any animals for the purpose of such exhibition, and the term exhibitor and trainer has a corresponding meaning

.Section 22 – Puts Restriction on exhibiting performing Animals and Section – 24  gives Judicial Power to prohibit or  restrict exhibition or  training. Section 25 grants powers to any person authorized by the prescribed authority in writing and any Police Officer, not below the rank of  Sub-inspector to enter the premises.Section 26 – Offence in relation to the Performing Animal    

Exemptions – Section 27 
Treatment and Care Section 35 of this Act, The state government may appoint infirmaries for the treatment and care of the animals in respect of which offences under this Act have been committed, and may authorize the detention of any animal which requires its production before the magistrate.
For complete reading of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act, 1960, Check the links below.                                   http://www.awbi.in/policy_acts_rules.html
http://www.awbi.org/awbi-pdf/APL.pdf

” I believe animals should be respected as citizens of this earth. They should have the right to their own freedom, their own families, and their own life.”  If you see any kind of animal cruelty around you, do not neglect it but report it using PCA -1960 to the nearest Police Station, Animal Organizations.                                

  THE GEEK VETERINARIAN

Laws and Regulation for Animal Feeder and Pet Owners

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Feeding

In a developing country like India, Animal Feeders and Pet Family often face hatred since strays are seen as threat. Being a stray animal in India is like a war zone, beaten mercilessly and sometimes being killed for entertainment.However there are certain laws which give voice to these voiceless animals, which are as follows :-

  1. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA), 1960 – An Act to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals and for that purpose to amend the law relating to the prevention of cruelty to animals.
  2. IPC Section 428 & 429 of the constitution – to kill or main any animal, including the stray, is a punishable offence.
  3. Section 9, Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 – Disturbing or destroying eggs or nest of birds and reptiles or chopping a tree having a nest, can lead to imprisonment and fine up to Rs. 25,000.
  4. Section 11, PCA,1960 – It is illegal to poison stray animal
  5. Section 11(1) (i) & 11(1) (j) of PCA,1960 – It is against the law to relocate stray animals from their territory.
Feeding of a goat

Feeders and Family are threatened for feeding strays on road or keeping pet in there society, the Constitution of India provides you laws which allow you legally to feed stray animals or keep them as pets, which are stated as follow –  

  1. The Animal Welfare Board of India issues IDs for people who feed stray animals
  2. Implementation of PCA,1960; Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2001, IPC, section 428 & 429 and Article 51A(g) of constitution.
  3. Article 51A– It is fundamental duty of every citizen of India to have a compassion for all living creatures.
  4. Article 21 guarantees the protection of life and personal liberty, If someone wants to feed and provide a shelter to dogs, he is at liberty to do so.
  5. 503 of IPC – Criminal Intimidation.

Circulars from Animal Welfare Board of India will help you see the big picture about feeding and sheltering stray and pet animals in public place or a society. It put some obligations on you too along with others.
                                        http://www.awbi.org/awbi-pdf/APL.pdf                                          

  Pet Dog and Street Dog Circular                                                                                                                    

    THE GEEK VETERINARIAN

Essential Reads

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Vet Book

Many books have been and being written for Veterinary Science, but there are a few books about Veterinarians and fewest of them gives chills. They all are available on major stores online and offline.Buckle Up for a ride full of adventure, which you dream of living or you are hustling to live.

One glance at a book and you hear the voice of another person, perhaps someone dead for 1000 years. To read is to voyage through time”

  1. Leaders of the Pack: Women and the Future of Veterinary Medicine by Dr. Donald F. Smith & Julie Kumble.
  2. World Wild Vet: Encounters in the Animal Kingdom by Dr. Evan Antin
  3. The Elephant Whisperer by Lawrence Anthony and Graham Spence
  4. Wrestling with Rhinos: The adventures of a Glasgow Vet in Kenya by Jerry Haigh
  5. Alt-Vet: The revolutionary Pet Care and Longevity Solution  by Dr. Mitsie Vargas
  6. The Complete Herbal Handbook: For Farm and Stable by Juliette de B. Levy
  7. The Cat: Clinical Medicine and Management by Susan Little
  8.  The Business Side of Veterinary Medicine: What veterinary schools don’t teach you by M.Duffy Jones
  9.  Head to Tail Wellness: Western Veterinary Medicine Meets Eastern Wisdom by Stacy Fuchino 
  10. Placebos for Pets?: The truth about alternative medicine in Animals by Brennen Mckenzie
Inspirational Book

 11. No Way to Treat a Friend by Niall Taylor and Alex Gough

12. The Feline Patient by Gary D. Norsworthy     

13. How to Become a Veterinarian: What they do, How to Train, Daily life as a Vet, Is it really the right Career for you? by Dr. Susanna Lee     

14. On Being a Veterinarian: What to Expect, How to prepare by April Kung     

15. Five Minute Veterinary Consult: Canine Feline by Larry P. Tilley, Francis W.K. Smith Jr.     

16. The Nature of Animal Healing: The Path to Your Pet’s Health, Happiness and Longevity by Martin Goldstein     

17.Veterinary Herbal Medicine by Susan G. Wynn, Barbara Fougere      

18.How to become an Equine Veterinarian: A Guide for Teens by Justin B. Long, Erica Lacher     

19.The Treatment of Horses by Homoeopathy by George Macleod     

20.Blue Juice: Euthanasia in Veterinary Medicine (Animal Culture and Society) by Patricia Morris  

Diving into Practitioner's Life shows you a bigger picture of Do's & Don'ts. Reading these books will help you enjoy your work more and become an even better Veterinarian.                                                                                                                                

THE GEEK VETERINARIAN