Dog Bite

Have you ever wondered about the origin of Rabies. What is Rabies? How it occurs? What is Rabies Virus and what symptoms, signs an animal will exhibit. In this blog we will cover all the major aspect regarding Rabies.
Rabies is a viral zoonotic neuroinvasive disease which causes inflammation of brain and ultimately death. Lyssa Virus or more commonly known as Rabies Virus, which belongs to the family of Rhabdoviridae, which includes 3 genera of animal viruses, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, and Vesiculovirus and the genus Lyssavirus includes Rabies virus, with a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA Genome with a distinct “bullet-shape“. Rabies Virus occurs in animals such as humans, dog, cattle, bats, although any mammal. 
How can you tell if any animal have rabies? You can’t tell exactly if any animal have rabies by looking at it- the only way to know for sure if an animal has rabies is to perform lab testing of the following samples saliva, serum, spinal fluid. However animals with rabies may act strangely. Some may show aggression and try to bite while others may be lethargic, excess drooling along with foaming at mouth or animal having trouble moving or paralysis. Test such as ELISA, RT-PCR, Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Test are performed for diagnostic purpose antemortem and brain tissue for post-mortem, PM finding includes Negri Bodies in the tissue.Rabies Virus is transmitted through direct contact with the saliva of infected animal. People usually get rabies from the bite for a rabid animal, yet it is possible for a person to get rabies from non-bite exposure, which includes scratches, abrasions, or open wounds that have been exposed to the saliva of the rabid animal. 
Stages of Rabies   Three stages of rabies are recognized which are Prodromal, Excitative and the last stage is Dumb or Paralytic stage. 

Images of brain showing (left) thin and discoloured cortical ribbon(arrows) and small hippocampus of a Rabid Human and (Right) normal cortex

Treatment First step towards a great successful treatment is to wash the wound where animal had bite with Povidone-iodine or  alcohol to reduce the virus particle at the site of bite.  Vaccination can prevent the disease if given within 10 days. Vaccine is 100% effective if given early, and still has a chance of success if delivery is delayed. Intra-dermal Vaccination route is used. Vaccination after exposure, PEP(Post-exposure prophylaxis) is highly successful in preventing the disease. In unvaccinated humans, rabies is almost always fatal after neurological symptoms have been developed.   

28th September is World Rabies Day, which promotes the information, prevention, and elimination of disease.  

“Don’t leave this issue unheard. Do your part to educate the world about it. End Rabies ”                                  


Published by TheGeekVeterinarian

Veterinarian by Profession, Blogger by Passion

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